Hippotherapy: Improving Lives One Horseat a Time
Annually, over 58,000 people benefit fromEquine Assisted Therapy (EAT)—activities including, but not limited to,grooming and riding horses—as treatment for a wide range of cognitive,physical, and emotional impairments. Hippotherapy, a specific type of EAT, isused to treat patients with 1 neuro-motor, and sensory dysfunctions such asMultiple Sclerosis, Down Syndrome, and autism. Patients begin by riding horsesunder the direction of a physiotherapist and horse handler. The gait, tempo,and cadence of the horse’s movement 2 serves to stimulate thepatient’s vestibular system (the inner ear and brain regions responsible forbalance), causing motor responses that can improve postural stability,strength, and sensory awareness.
Since it was first introduced in the 1960s,hippotherapy has been adopted by a number of professions—such as physicaltherapy, occupational therapy, and speech pathology—to improve patients’physical and mental health. Professionals interested in incorporatinghippotherapy into their treatment sessions first 3 obtain certificationfrom the American Hippotherapy Association (AHA) or the ProfessionalAssociation of Therapeutic Horsemanship International (PATH). Then, after atleast three years of experience in hippotherapy, a professional can also chooseto become a Certified Hippotherapy Clinical 4 Specialist; a designation thatfacilitates teaching, research, and development of new hippotherapypractices.
As hippotherapy generates more attentionamong the medical community and public-at-large, the demand for licensedpractitioners is quickly expanding. 5 According to the US Departmentof Labor, professions that incorporate hippotherapy are forecasted to growsignificantly in the next decade: physical therapy, occupationaltherapy, and speech and language pathology have projected ten-year growth ratesof 36 percent, 29 percent, and 19 percent, respectively. A career inhippotherapy thus offers the opportunity to both improve the quality of lifefor countless individuals and to become involved in a new and rapidly growingfield.
serve to stimulate
is stimulating to
Specialist—a designation thatfacilitates
Specialist; a designationfacilitating
Specialist, a designationfacilitating:
5 Which choice most effectively asserts aclaim supported by the data provided in the rest of the sentence?
In the future, the practice of hippotherapywill likely be adopted by a number of new and exciting fields:
Due to the recent popularity ofhippotherapy, the average annual income of hippotherapy practitioners willlikely increase as well:
Led by occupational therapy, anumber of fields that incorporate hippotherapy are projected to growsignificantly in the next ten years:
Classifying the Stars
In astronomy, stellar classification isgoverned by the Morgan-Keenen system, which categorizes stars based on theircomposition and surface temperature. The origins of this system can be tracedback to the work of Annie Jump Cannon, a late nineteenth-century and earlytwentieth-century 6 astronomer. Spending over forty yearsclassifying stars based on their unique spectra of transmitted light.
 Beginning early in her life,Cannon demonstrated an exceptional aptitude for the physical sciences.  Later,as a student at Wellesley College, Cannon earned a degree in physics and becamean expert in spectroscopy: the process by which light is separated into itscomponent wavelengths. During this period, she also took up photographyand traveled extensively in order to experiment with the newly inventedblack-box camera.  As a child, she developed an interest inastronomy and purportedly used her attic as a makeshift observatory. 7
Cannon’s background in physics, astronomy,and photography provided her with a unique skillset that 8 willserve her well for the rest of her career. After working as a researchassistant for a number of astronomers at Wellesley and Radcliffe Colleges,Cannon was hired by Professor Edward Charles Pickering, the director of theHarvard College Observatory. Under Pickering, she classified over 300,000stars—more than any other human in history—using only a telescope, aspectrometer, and a camera. Using this knowledge, she developed her own classificationsystem that relied on the surface temperature of the stars, which could beapproximated using the spectrum of light transmitted from each star. It wassaid that Cannon could classify three stars a minute and, using a magnifyingglass, could classify stars down to the 9th magnitude—sixteen times fainterthan 9 humans.
Today, Cannon’s unique classificationsystem is used by countless astronomy enthusiasts around the world. 10 Pickeringwas succeeded by Harlow Shapley. Shapley once said that Cannon’s contributionto astronomy was “a structure that probably will never be duplicated in kind orextent by a single individual.” Indeed, Cannon’s work has forevershaped our comprehension and perception of the vast and elaborate universe.
astronomer, she spent
astronomer who spent
7 To make the paragraph most logical,sentence 4 should be placed
where it is now.
before sentence 1.
after sentence 1.
after sentence 2.
the human eye.
that of the human eye.
what can be seen by the humaneye.
10 Which choice most effectively combinesthe underlined sentences?
Harlow Shapley, who once saidCannon’s contribution to astronomy was “a structure that probably will never beduplicated in kind or extent by a single individual,” was Pickering’ssuccessor.
Pickering was succeeded byHarlow Shapley, and Shapley once said that Cannon’s contribution to astronomywas “a structure that probably will never be duplicated in kind or extent by asingle individual.”
“A structure that probably willnever be duplicated in kind or extent by a single individual” was once said byPickering’s successor, Harlow Shapley, about Cannon’s contribution toastronomy.
Harlow Shapley, the astronomerwho succeeded Pickering, once referred to Cannon’s contribution to astronomy as“a structure that probably will never be duplicated in kind or extent by asingle individual.”